Course Content
Parts of the Seeds
Parts of the Seeds
Parts of the Seeds
About Lesson

Most plants produce new plants from seeds. A seed is like a tiny package. It contains the beginning of a very young plant inside a protective covering.

A seed has three important parts-an embryo, stored food, and a seed coat. The embryo contains the basic parts from which a young plant will develop-roots, stems, and leaves. Stored food keeps the young plant alive until it can make its own food through photosynthesis. Seeds contain one or two seed leaves, called cotyledons. In some plants, food is stored in the cotyledons.

The outer protective covering of a seed is called the seed coat. The seed coat is like a plastic wrap; it protects the embryo and stored food from drying out. This protection is necessary because a seed may be inactive-may not begin to grow-for weeks, months, or even years.

Then, when conditions are right, the embryo inside a seed suddenly becomes active and begins to grow. The time when the embryo first begins to grow is called germination.

During germination, the seed absorbs water from the environment. Then the embryo uses its stored food to begin to grow. The seed coat breaks open, and the embryo’s roots grow downward. Then its stem and leaves grow upward. As the stem grows longer, it breaks out of the ground. Once it is above the ground, the stem straightens up toward the sunlight, and the first leaves appear on the stem. When the young plant produces its first leaves, it can begin to make its own food by photosynthesis